VATPAC Tutorial: TMA Phraseology
Directed Traffic Information (Flight Following or IFR aircraft)
'ABC, traffic is DEF, Cessna 210, 8nm at your 11 o'clock, 3500ft, opposite direction'
'ABC, traffic is DEF, Cessna 210, 6nm at your 2 o'clock, 4000ft, tracking south'
'ABC, IFR traffic for your arrival is XDF, Warrior, currently 20nm north of Avalon, 4000ft, tracking for the RNAV approach via NB, estimate the circuit area at time 21.'
'ABC, traffic is DEF, observed 4nm at your 10 o'clock, 3700ft unverified, appears to be tracking westbound, intentions unknown' (Used when you're not in contact with the aircraft in question, this would be considered observed traffic as opposed to reported traffic)
'YMF7000, IFR traffic for your arrival is QFA6202, Boeing 747, 8nm final RWY 18, estimates the circuit area at 26'
'JST626, squawk 7241, IFR traffic is YMF7000, Fokker 100, inbound from the north via the ILS approach runway 18, estimate the circuit area at 51'
'YMF7000, IFR traffic is JST626, A320, taxiing Avalon for Sydney, planning flight levels'
Cancelling Flight Following Services
Remember that flight following is really just an identification service, so that's all we need to cancel.
'ABC, leaving my jurisdiction, identification terminated, squawk 1200, frequency change approved'
Initial Contact with Approach (Arrivals)
Remember to pass the 3 instructions/pieces of information: descent (if able), landing runway, and approach expectation.
QFA123: 'ML APP, QFA123, descending 9000ft, received November.'
ML APP: 'QFA123, ML APP, g'day, descend via STAR 5000ft, runway 16, expect ILS approach.'
If an aircraft fails to report the ATIS code, query this on first contact as well.
QFA123: 'ML APP, QFA123, descending 9000ft.'
ML APP: 'QFA123, ML APP, g'day, descend via STAR 5000ft, runway 16, expect ILS approach, confirm in receipt of information November.'
Initial Contact with Approach (Departures)
QFA123: 'ML APP, g'day, QFA123, passing 2000ft, climbing 5000ft.'
ML APP: 'QFA123, Approach, identified, climb via SID flight level 240.'
You only need to state the location of the cancellation, not the time or anything else.
Aircraft: 'GEF, Avalon, cancel SARWATCH'
You: 'GEF, Avalon SARWATCH terminated'
Aircraft Leaving CTA Descending
If the aircraft is conducting an instrument approach, issue a clearance to leave controlled airspace descending on the approach. (e.g. ILS to YMAV, RNAV to YMMB, etc)
'QFA6202, cleared to leave controlled area on the Runway 18 ILS approach, no reported IFR traffic'
A clearance for an instrument approach is also a clearance to conduct the published missed approach, so we need to protect the missed approach (since this procedure's missed approach reenters controlled airspace) and ensure no aircraft are cleared in such a way which would conflict with QFA6202 if they performed a missed approach.
Since we'll be protecting the missed approach until the aircraft lands, it's a good idea to ask the pilot to report clear of the runway. That way, we can know for sure that the aircraft won't be conducting the missed approach and we no longer need to protect that procedure from other aircraft.
'QFA6202, report clear of the runway'
If the aircraft isn't conducting an instrument approach, there is no need to issue an approach clearance, just the clearance to leave controlled airspace when ready.
'EXG, when ready leave control area descending, no reported IFR traffic'
Rerouting Aircraft OCTA to Facilitate an Airways Clearance
If an aircraft plans a route which will not be available, it is a good idea to attempt and reroute the aircraft so that a clearance will become available. You can't tell an aircraft where to track when they are OCTA, so we advise them that a clearance will be available tracking direct to a waypoint/position, and advise them of any IFR traffic from their present position direct to that point. The pilot will then track to that point and expect an airways clearance approaching controlled airspace.
'EXG, a clearance is unavailable on your planned route due inbound aircraft to Melbourne, expect a clearance tracking direct SAMIG, there's no reported traffic on that track'
then when a clearance is available:
'EXG, cleared to Moorabin, tracking SAMIG, MB, maintain 3,500ft'
If the reroute will occur within controlled airspace, you can issue a normal airways clearance with an amended route.
'EXG., cleared to Moorabin via ARBEY, thence amended TUNKA, MONTY, MB, maintain 8000ft'
If the aircraft is already established in CTA, we just need to reclear them as required.
'EXG, for separation, recleared direct to TEMPL, thence MB, maintain 5000ft'
Handling VFR Aircraft Entering/Leaving CTA
Aircraft: 'ML APP, WHB, Cessna 172, 8nm SW of Melbourne City, 1500ft, for Mount Hotham, received November, request clearance'
You: 'WHB, approach, remain clear of class C airspace, squawk 0542'
then, when the aircraft is identified and a clearance is available:
You: 'WHB, identified, cleared to Mount Hotham direct, maintain 1,500ft, area QNH 1013'
then, when the aircraft is clear of controlled airspace:
You: 'WHB, identification and control service terminated, squawk 1200, frequency change approved'
Vectoring for Sequencing
If you only need a short vector and will then reclear the aircraft back onto the STAR, don't cancel the STAR as part of the instruction (this is preferred to reduce controller workload).
'VOZ1755, for sequencing, turn right heading 010, expect to rejoin the STAR at NEFER'
then when the required separation has been built:
'VOZ1755, resume own navigation, track direct NEFER to rejoin the STAR'
If the sequence will require excessive vectoring, you may wish to cancel the STAR and vector the aircraft to the commencement of the approach. Note that by doing so, you also cancel any speed restrictions associated with the STAR, which may cause issues later in the approach. For example, the RIVET arrival to YSSY requires aircraft to fly specific speeds on approach, even if they are cleared a visual approach.
'VOZ1755, cancel STAR, turn right heading 030, 40 track miles to run' (It is a good idea to give an indication of the remaining track miles to touchdown when vectoring to final, so pilots can plan their descents)
Thanks to Matt Kelly for this in-depth guide