Walkthrough Tutorial: IFR Albury to Melbourne
We will follow as you fly a Beech Baron VH-ABC on an IFR flight from Albury (YMAY), a Class D airport in a non-radar environment, to Melbourne (YMML), a Class C primary airport in a radar environment.
Note: Albury Tower controls 'stepped' Class D and C airspace within 30nm of YMAY up to 8500ft. There is overlying Class C airspace that steps out to 45DME AY where the Class C LL (Lower Level) increases to 12,500ft.
You have submitted a Flight Notification (Flight Plan) for the south-westerly flight at 8000ft, which means that you will transit from the Class D airspace into Class C airspace climbing through 4500ft. At 30DME AY you will leave controlled airspace and fly part of the enroute IFR-OCTA, but you will still be required to maintain continual two-way contact with Melbourne Centre since you are IFR. Whilst enroute you will obtain an airways clearance to re-enter controlled airspace as you enter the Melbourne Terminal Area.
The flight notification details are:
Callsign: ABC (The 'VH-' is omitted for a domestic flight)
Altitude: A080 (Short for 8,000')
Route: DCT AY V149 TEMIS V169 ML DCT
Estimated Time Enroute (ETE): 60 mins
Prepare the aircraft, startup. Set transponder to 3000 (standard for IFR flights entering controlled airspace), Nav-1 to Albury VOR 115.6 and copy the ATIS.
ALBURY TERMINAL INFORMATION DELTA
RWY: 25 FOR ARR AND DEP.
CLD: BKN 4500.
VIS: GREATER THAN 10 KM.
ON FIRST CONTACT WITH ALBURY GROUND OR APPROACH NOTIFY RECEIPT OF DELTA.
There is no GND service currently available at Albury so you will call TWR. Set FS radio to 124.2...
[PILOT] "Albury Tower, Alpha Bravo Charlie, IFR Baron for Melbourne, 4 POB, request clearance."
[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, cleared to Melbourne via DUGGI flight planned route, 8000, squawk 2306"
[PILOT] "Cleared to Melbourne via DUGGI planned route, 8000, squawk 2306, Alpha Bravo Charlie"
Take your time to set up your aircraft, set the transponder to 2306 and if available set 8000ft in your autopilot or altitude alert.
[PILOT] "Alpha Bravo Charlie request taxi, received DELTA."
[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, taxi to holding point Charlie runway 25, time 18."
[PILOT] "Holding point Charlie runway 25, Alpha Bravo Charlie"
Taxi to the holding point and ensure you are ready before you make your "ready" call.
[PILOT] "Alpha Bravo Charlie is ready, and request backtrack for the full length."
[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, backtrack and line up runway 25."
[PILOT] "Backtrack, line up Runway 25, Alpha Bravo Charlie"
[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, cleared for takeoff, make a left turn."
[PILOT] "Left turn, cleared for takeoff, Alpha Bravo Charlie"
Note: The only departure instruction you have been given is to make a left-hand turn. This is a standard procedure and you'll be expected to simply turn left after takeoff to take up your outbound course to DUGGI (you should endeavour to do this by 5nm from the field). The outbound course to DUGGI is the 207 Albury radial outbound.
After departure the pilot will make a call to AY_TWR
[PILOT] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, departure."
Note: This alerts the controller to be prepared to receive your departure report and allows him to prioritise his workload appropriately (eg. He may need to clear someone to land first).
[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie."
[PILOT] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, tracking to intercept Albury 207 radial outbound, climbing to 8000, estimate DUGGI time 02."
Note: A departure report is required in a non-radar environment as the TWR controller needs to pass on some of this information to the Centre controller.
[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, passing 6,000 contacts Melbourne Centre on 124.0, g'day"
[PILOT] "124.0 passing 6,000, Alpha Bravo Charlie"
Set FS radio to 124.000Mhz
[PILOT] "Melbourne Centre, Alpha Bravo Charlie 15DME Albury tracking 207 radial to DUGGI, climbing to 8000, DUGGI at 02."
[ML_CTR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, Melbourne Centre, Identified, Area QNH1016, verify level."
Note: The controller needs to verify your altitude matches the readout he has on his scope (sent from your transponder). He has issued the area QNH which you should ensure is set before you report your level.
[PILOT] "1016, passing 6,500, Alpha Bravo Charlie""
[ML_CTR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, thanks, expect onwards clearance at TEMIS."
Note: A clearance only covers you to the first point you leave controlled airspace. Subsequent clearances must be obtained if you wish to re-enter the controlled airspace. At 8000 you leave controlled airspace at 30 DME AY and will need to get a new clearance before 45 DME ML. Melbourne Centre has anticipated this need due to your flight notification and advised you to expect clearance at TEMIS.
A little while later at TEMIS...
[ML_CTR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, airways clearance available."
[PILOT] "Ready, Alpha Bravo Charlie"
[ML_CTR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, cleared to Melbourne via BOYSE flight planned route maintain 8000"
[PILOT] "Clear to Melbourne via BOYSE planned route, 8000, Alpha Bravo Charlie"
[ML_CTR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, contact Melbourne Approach on 132.0, g'day"
[PILOT ] "132.0, g'day! Alpha Bravo Charlie"
MELBOURNE TERMINAL INFORMATION XRAY
EXP ILS APCH
RWY: 16 FOR ARR. RWY 27 FOR DEP.
CLD: BKN 2500.
VIS: GREATER THAN 10 KM.
ON FIRST CONTACT WITH MELBOURNE GROUND OR APPROACH NOTIFY RECEIPT OF XRAY.
Switch FS radio to APP 132.000Mhz and set QNH 1019:
[PILOT] "Melbourne Approach, Alpha Bravo Charlie, maintaining 8000, received XRAY, on top."
Note: You should advise approach that you have received the ATIS and report your current in-flight conditions (VISUAL, IN CLOUD, ON-TOP).
[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, Melbourne Approach, Runway 16, expect vectors for ILS approach."
[PILOT] "Runway 16, Alpha Bravo Charlie."
Note: Approach has acknowledged your call, reiterated the runway and given you information to expect an ILS approach. You only need to read back the runway, and should now prepare yourself for the ILS by sighting the chart and tuning your NAV radios.
Just after 30DME ML:
[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, turn right heading 240, descend to 5000."
[PILOT] "Left heading 240, 5000, Alpha Bravo Charlie."
[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, negative, turn RIGHT heading 240."
[PILOT] "Right heading 240, Alpha Bravo Charlie"
Note: Heading 240 roughly vectors you to the initial approach fix for ILS Runway 16, which according to your chart is a position called BELTA. ATC will continue to vector you however you should be aware of this fix. Aviate, Navigate, Communicate.
[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, descend to 4000."
[PILOT] "4000, Alpha Bravo Charlie"
A few miles NE of BELTA:
[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, position 4nm left for the 16 localiser, turn left heading 190, cleared ILS Runway 16 Approach."
[PILOT] "Left heading 190, cleared ILS Approach, Alpha Bravo Charlie."
Note: You may have found three similar charts for the ILS 16 Approach, X-RAY, YANKEE and ZULU. X-Ray is not required as it is for low visibility operations only. The difference between YANKEE and ZULU is the source of distance information. YANKEE derives distance from ML DME, ZULU uses DME from IMS (the localiser frequency). It doesn't matter which one you use as long as you use the one that matches your instruments.
[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, when established, contact Tower on 120.5"
[PILOT] "120.5, thanks, Alpha Bravo Charlie"
As soon as you are established on the approach, set FS radio to Tower 120.500Mhz.
[PILOT] "Melbourne Tower, Alpha Bravo Charlie."
[ML_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, Melbourne Tower."
[ML_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, the wind is 220 degrees at 20 knots, runway 16 cleared to land."
[PILOT] "Runway 16, cleared to land, Alpha Bravo Charlie"
Note: Only the instruction is readback, and not, in this case, the weather since it is information only.
Vacate as without delay and set FS radio to Ground on 121.700Mhz.
[PILOT] "Melbourne Ground, Alpha Bravo Charlie request taxi to GA parking. We're not familiar with the airport."
[ML_GND] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, Melbourne Ground, turn right onto ALPHA, left on JULIET to parking."
[PILOT] "Right on ALPHA, left on JULIET to parking, thanks, Alpha Bravo Charlie."
Taxiing on JULIET:
[ML_GND] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, GA parking is just off to your right now, g'day"
[PILOT] "OK, thanks a lot, Alpha Bravo Charlie"