IFR Melbourne to Sydney

We will follow you as you fly a jet, PAC456, on an IFR flight from Melbourne to Sydney completely within a Class C radar environment. The flight time is approximately 70 minutes. It is assumed that you are familiar with your aircraft's systems and that you are able to fly in a controlled manner. You may fly this tutorial with basically any jet passenger or freight aircraft.

The flight strip details are: PAC456, T/B763/F, YMML, YSSY, IFR, FL330, DCT ML H129 DOSEL Y59 TESAT DCT

Note 1: Your company callsign is PAC456. Using the preferred 'group format' it is spoken as ""Pacific Four Fifty Six"".

Note 2: You have filed an IFR flight plan so you will use IFR waypoints such as VORs (ML) and Intersections (or Fixes) such as DOSEL rather than VFR waypoints such as airports, roads and townships .

Note 3: Your flight-planned route is essentially the three straight lines linking ML-DOSEL-RIVET-TESAT (TESAT is a waypoint positioned directly overhead Sydney Airport), and if approved, this is what you will be expected to take up and fly once airborne, unless you are otherwise instructed.

Note 4: Unlike some other parts of the world, in Australia, Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs) and Standard Arrival Routes (STARs) are issued by ATC and the pilot does not enter them as part of the route details.  SIDs and STARs change names and designators from time to time. At the time of publication the SIDs and STARs used below were current.

Set your FS radio to Melbourne clearance delivery 127.2, and wait for the voice channel to connect. It is quite rare in the online environment to find all ATC stations manned.  If clearance delivery is not online, you should contact the next highest available station in the following order.

  • Melbourne Ground 121.7
  • Melbourne Tower 120.5
  • Melbourne Approach 132.0
  • Melbourne Centre 125.2

If you are unsure of who to contact, a quick private message to any one of the controllers will often clear that up.

[PILOT] "Clearance Delivery, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six, request clearance"
[MEL_DEL] ""Pacific Four Fifty Six, stand-by.""

Note: The correct response to the term "stand-by" is silence.  Do not acknowledge an instruction to stand-by.

[ML_DEL] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, Clearance Delivery, .... Cleared to Sydney via DOSEL, Flight Planned Route, Maintain 5000, DOSEL EIGHT departure, Squawk 4125, Departures 132.0"
[PILOT] "Cleared to Sydney via DOSEL, Planned Route, 5000, DOSEL EIGHT departure, Squawk 4125, Departures 132.0, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"
[MEL_DEL] "Pacific Four Fifty Six."

Note 1: The basic airways clearance covers the route described by the pilot in the flight plan, and is referred to as the 'flight planned route'. The term 'flight planned route' is the only abbreviation permitted in any clearance and means after conducting the DOSEL EIGHT departure you can expect to fly via the route your entered in your flight plan.

Note 2: You have planned FL330 but your clearance contains the instruction to ""maintain 5000"". This is the altitude you will climb & maintain once cleared for take-off.  It is important that you do not exceed this clearance as there may be traffic passing above you.

Note 3: You have been instructed to fly in accordance with the DOSEL EIGHT between ML and DOSEL rather than the planned straight line. If you are unable to navigate the route or comply with any part of this clearance, then advise ATC NOW and/or ask for a different clearance. It is ALWAYS better to advise the controller if you can't accept a specific part of the clearance, rather than attempt something you are not comfortable with.  Charts for all airports in Australia and much more information can be found in our Pilot Assist system accessible through the VATPAC website.

Note 4: ATC and Pilot general acknowledgments are given by transmission of the aircraft callsign. This is illustrated above in the [ML_DEL] acknowledgment of correct readback. The phrase, "Readback correct" is not used.

Continue to prepare your aircraft for the flight by selecting your squawk code 4125 in the transponder, set your flight director with your initial heading (263 for runway 27) and altitude of 5000ft.  It's also a good idea at this stage to preset the next few radio frequencies you will need in your radios. Before you make your first contact with Ground you will need the current Melbourne ATIS. It is a good idea to write it down as you receive it.

MELBOURNE TERMINAL INFORMATION XRAY 
EXP ILS APCH THEN INDEPENDENT VISUAL APCH WHEN VISUAL. 
RWY: 16 FOR ARR. RWY 27 FOR DEP. 
WND: 210/10-15 
QNH: 1019. 
TMP: 11. 
CLD: BKN 2500. 
VIS: GREATER THAN 10 KM. 
ON FIRST CONTACT WITH MELBOURNE GROUND OR APPROACH NOTIFY RECEIPT OF XRAY.  

 

Switch your FS radio to Ground 121.7 to request pushback from the gate.  Note, pushback is not always required.  Some smaller aircraft and aircraft at stand-off gates may be able to "power out" from their parking position.  Where you do require pushback though, you require approval to do so.

[PILOT] "Melbourne Ground, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six is at Bay C3, with information XRAY, .... request pushback." 
[ML_GND] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, Melbourne Ground, .... pushback approved.""
[PILOT] "Pushback approved, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

During pushback, you may start engines without further approval.  Call ground again when pushback is complete, and you are ready to begin taxi.

[PILOT] "Pacific Four Fifty Six is ready for taxi"
[ML_GND] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... taxi via TANGO to holding point PAPA, Runway 27."
[PILOT] "Via TANGO, holding point PAPA, Runway 27, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Commence taxi via the nominated taxiways, and remain on Ground frequency. When you are at the holding point AND ready for takeoff, switch your FS radio to Tower 120.5, and call ready.

[PILOT] "Melbourne Tower, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six, ready at PAPA, Runway 27" 
[ML_TWR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... Hold short."
[PILOT] "Hold short, Pacific Four Fifty Six."

[ML_TWR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... Runway 27, line up and wait" 
[PILOT] "Line up and wait Runway 27, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Remember as you enter the runway to switch your transponder to mode C to allow ATC to be able to see and track you once airborne.

[ML_TWR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... contact Departures airborne, Runway 27, cleared for takeoff" 
[PILOT] "Departures airborne, Runway 27, cleared for takeoff, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note 1: From your clearance you have already received instructions and know what to do in relation to tracking on the SID, climbing to 5000FT, and changing to DEP frequency 132.0.  In this case we will actually be talking to Melbourne Approach but we can still call them Departures.

Note 2: When departure instructions have already been issued then it is only necessary for TWR to give a simple takeoff clearance, and this greatly reduces TWR workload. Runway occupancy times are also reduced, and this increases traffic density.

Remember: The priorities are; AviateNavigateCommunicate. In this instance it means, once airborne; Make sure you have cleaned up and trimmed the aircraft for climb to 5000FT; Check that you are tracking correctly on the SID;

After 1 & 2 are complete, switch your FS radio to Departures 132.0 and contact Departures with your assigned altitude (5,000ft) and your current altitude.

[PILOT] "Melbourne Departures, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six is passing 2300, climbing to 5000" 
[ML_DEP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, ..... identified, cancel SID, turn right heading 310, climb and maintain 9000"
[PILOT] "Cancel SID, Right 310, and 9000, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note: Your SID has been cancelled and you are being radar vectored. This typically happens where traffic allows and ATC are able to provide you with considerable track shortening. You should now expect to be radar vectored until you are able to rejoin your flight planned route.

During the turn; 
[ML_DEP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... turn further right heading 350, climb to Flight Level 240". 
[PILOT] "Right 350, Flight Level 200, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

[ML_DEP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, ....resume own navigation, direct to DOSEL, planned route""
[PILOT] "Direct DOSEL, planned route .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

[PILOT] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... request diversion 10 miles left of track due weather"
[ML_DEP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... 10nm left of track approved, advise when clear of weather"
[PILOT] "Pacific Four Fifty Six"

When clear of the weather: 
[PILOT] "Pacific Four Fifty Six clear of weather, request direct DOSEL"
[ML_DEP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... track shortening direct EBONY is available, .... advise"

Note: "Advise" means let me know what you want to do.

[PILOT] "We'll take that thanks, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"
[ML_DEP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... from present position, track direct EBONY, flight planned route"
[PILOT] "Direct EBONY then planned route, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note: Correct phraseology is intended to provide a standardised structure that will keep transmissions as brief as possible whilst ensuring that there is no ambiguity. However, this doesn't mean that you have to get exactly the right words all the time. Variation is often introduced by both pilots and ATC, but this is acceptable as long as there is complete understanding and exchanges are kept brief.

[ML_DEP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... contact Melbourne Centre on 125.0, .... g'day"
[PILOT] "125.0, .... g'day, ....Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Switch your FS radio to 125.0MHz and call Melbourne Centre.

[PILOT] "Melbourne Centre, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six climbing Flight Level 240, tracking direct EBONY"
[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, Melbourne Centre, .... climb to Flight Level 330"
[PILOT] "Climb to Flight Level 330, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note: Because our current track is not along our planned route, it is good airmanship to advise Centre that we are tracking direct EBONY.  Normally we would only advise our last assigned level, "climbing FL240".

[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... STAR clearance available?" 
[PILOT] "Pacific Four Fifty Six"
[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... STAR clearance RIVET TWO ARRIVAL, Runway 16R, Flight Level 330"
[PILOT] "RIVET TWO, Runway 16R, Flight Level 330, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note 1: A STAR clearance contains 3 items in order; Arrival Procedure comprising Transition/STAR; ... Runway to be used; ... Current altitude instruction.

Note 2: The STAR clearance begins at RIVET which is on your flight-planned route. You will join and follow the STAR from RIVET. Any speed or altitude restriction stated in the STAR must be observed unless you have that restriction 'waived'. Keep this in mind later when you are on the STAR. During cruise there may be long periods when no contact is required. This is a good time to get out all the things you will need for the arrival. After your arrival planning is complete, those of you with cabin staff may request in-flight meal service. If ATC or the pilot need to contact each other, then it is usual to give a 'heads-up' before passing details.

[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... Melbourne Centre"
[PILOT] "Pacific Four Fifty Six"
[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... traffic 50 miles ahead reports moderate turbulence at Flight Level 290" 
[PILOT] "Thanks, Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note 1: This was simply information being passed to assist the pilot and was not an 'instruction'. There is no requirement to readback this information and a basic callsign acknowledgement is sufficient. A little while later... While "Thanks" is not required phraseology, when radio traffic is light, it's nice to be courteous.  Who knows, you might get some priority treatment later in the flight because of it!

Note 2: You may not always get this heads up from ATC if the instruction is being given at a time when the pilot might reasonably expect it.  For example, within about 150nm of the destination, the pilot should be expecting and ready to receive a descent instruction.

[PILOT] "Melbourne Centre, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"
[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, Melbourne Centre, .... go ahead"
[PILOT] "We're experiencing moderate turbulence at Flight Level 330, request Flight Level 370, ..... Pacific Four Fifty Six" 
[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, ..... standby"

Note: ATC may need time to check other traffic before re-clearing the aircraft to a different level.

[ML_CTR] ""Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... climb to Flight Level 370. Requirement to reach Flight Level 350 by ARRAN." 
[PILOT] "Flight Level 370, requirement Flight Level 350 by ARRAN, we're leaving Flight Level 330 now, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six" 
[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note 1: The controller has issued a requirement to reach an intermediate level by a certain point.  This may be a waypoint or some distance from a waypoint.  This is generally used to provide separation from other traffic and in this instance may be due to crossing traffic at Flight Level 340.

Note 2: A pilot must report leaving a maintained level such as FL330, and ATC should acknowledge with the aircraft callsign as shown here.

Note 3: ATC will amend your flight planned to indicate the new cruising level.

Level off the climb at FL370, and continue to maintain accurate tracking.

Some time later you can expect an initial descent clearance. If traffic allows then you could be advised to make a descent at your own discretion by ATC prefixing the instruction with the term, "When ready". If this happens it allows you to set your own 'top of descent' (TOD) and advise ATC when descent has been commenced.

[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... when ready descend to Flight Level 210" 
[PILOT] "Flight Level 210 when ready, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note 1: You are cleared down to FL210 but "when ready" means the descent is pilot initiated so you don't have to descend immediately. Continue at FL370 until you reach the TOD for YOUR planned descent profile.

Note 2: At all other times a climb or descent instruction must be carried out immediately it is issued unless otherwise stated. eg, At CULIN descend to ....

[PILOT] "Pacific Four Fifty Six leaving Flight Level 370." 
[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note: A pilot must report leaving a maintained level such as FL370 and ATC should acknowledge with the aircraft callsign as shown here.

Once the descent for arrival has been initiated you will want to get the current Sydney ATIS. 
Again it is a good idea to write it down as you receive it.

SYDNEY TERMINAL INFORMATION PAPA 
EXP INDEPENDENT ILS APCH.
RWY: 16L AND 16R FOR ARR AND DEP. 
PARL RWY OPS IN PROG. 
INDEPENDENT DEP IN PROG.  
WND: 120 DEG, 10KT GUSTS 20KT
XW MAX 14 KTS, RWY 16.
CLD: SCT 1500 BKN 2000.
QNH: 1014. 
TMP: 17. 
ON FIRST CONTACT WITH SYDNEY GROUND OR APPROACH, NOTIFY RECEIPT OF PAPA.

 

 

 

 

 

  

This is also a good time to study the RIVET TWO ARRIVAL for Runway 16R. Check the route waypoints and pay special attention to any speed or altitude restrictions. Rehearse the procedure in your mind, and be ready to start navigating it after passing RIVET during the descent.

[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... descend to Flight Level 10,000 QNH 1014."
[PILOT] "10,000 on QNH 1014 .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... for separation turn right heading 080, expect vectors to RIVET for RIVET TWO ARRIVAL"
[PILOT] "Right 080, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note 1: You have been radar vectored off your track away from RIVET, but you have been advised to expect a vector back to RIVET where you will commence the STAR.

Note 2: You only readback key items of an 'instruction' and do not readback any item prefixed with an 'expect' term, or any details passed as information only.

Note 3: In this case ATC has advised you why you are required to turn by saying‚ "for separation".  Remember to Aviate, Navigate Communicate. Begin the turn to the right, ensure you are aware of where you are, and where you are going with the assigned heading and your position relative to your planned track to RIVET and then readback the instruction.

[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... Position 30nm Southwest of RIVET, resume own navigation, turn left, track direct RIVET and resume RIVET TWO ARRIVAL, maintain 10,000"
[PILOT] "Left, resume own navigation direct RIVET for the STAR, maintain 10,000, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"
[ML_CTR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... contact Sydney Approach 124.4, ..... g'day"
[PILOT] "Approach 124.4, ..... cya, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

RememberAviate, Navigate, Communicate 
You will be descending through the transition layer down to 10,000 so you will have to set QNH 1014 on the altimeter, and there is a speed restriction of 250 knots below 10,000ft. There's also a requirement to cross TAMMI at or below 9000ft, so make sure your descent profile will get you down to 9000ft by TAMMI remembering that you need a few miles of near level flight to slow down at 10,000ft.

Note: If you have difficulty accommodating a restriction then discuss it with ATC and see if you can get a 'waiver'. If you have any doubt, discuss it, .... and do it NOW, don't wait until it's too late.

[PILOT] "Sydney Approach, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six is descending 10000, on top with information PAPA"
[SY_APP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, Sydney Approach, runway 16R expect vectors for right circuit ILS approach, 55 track miles to run."

Note: ATC has reinforced that fact that you are for runway 16R and given you expect information regarding the type of approach and circuit direction.  ATC has also advised you of your track miles to run.  It is standard practice in Sydney that you will be vectored between the STAR and final approach.  ATC will advise track miles so you can maintain your descent throughout the vectoring phase.  You do not need to read back "expect" information.

[PILOT] "Runway 16R, .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Timing becomes much more critical the closer you get so make sure you execute any turns or descents promptly and smoothly.

RememberAviateNavigateCommunicate means:

Keep the aircraft flying at proper trim and airspeed at all times. 
Commence heading and/or altitude changes immediately when instructed. 
Readback after the first two.

Note: Regardless of the type of arrival, as soon as you know what is expected of you make sure that you have all the information you need. If you are not sure at any time then ASK, .... and do it NOW, don't wait.

[SY_APP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, .... descend to 5000."
[PILOT] "5000 .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

[SY_APP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six .... for sequencing reduce speed to 210 knots." 
[PILOT] "Speed 210 knots .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note 1: In this case you are being asked to slow down for sequencing.  This is different to the above case where you were vectored off course for separation.

Note 2: There are a number of forms of speed restriction.  In the above case you are required to maintain 210kts.  Other forms are "maintain not below 210kts" meaning you must not fly slower than 210kts but you can fly faster if you wish (up to the 250kt speed restriction) or "maintain not above 210kts meaning you can fly slower than 210kts if you want to.  In the first two cases you may need to request permission to slow down later in the approach.

[SY_APP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six .... cancel STAR turn left heading 340 descend to 4000 vector for downwind 16R localiser frequency 109.5."
[PILOT] "Left 340 and down to 4000 .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

The localiser frequency is given as a reminder and to ensure you will line up with the correct runway‚ you should already have this frequency dialed in ready for the approach.

[SY_APP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six .... resume profile speed" 
[PILOT] "Profile speed .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

You are now allowed to alter your speed from 210kts meaning when it comes time to slow down for finals you can do so without further instruction from ATC.

[SY_APP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six .... turn right heading 070 descend to 3000"
[PILOT] "Right 070 and down to 3000 .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

[SY_APP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six .... Position 3 miles left of the 16R Localiser. .... Turn right heading 130 for pilot intercept. Cleared ILS Runway 16R approach, report established."
[PILOT] "Right 130,... Cleared ILS 16R, Pacific Four Fifty Six.

Note: To acknowledge 'report established' the pilot must use Wilco (I will comply) rather than repeating the report requirement which might introduce confusion. In this instance the pilot will only use the phrase "Established" when they call and report being established.

[PILOT] "Pacific Four Fifty Six is established ILS 16R"
[SY_APP] "Pacific Four Fifty Six .... contact Tower on 120.5 .... g'day" 
[PILOT] "120.5 ...... g'day .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note: On-line due to LAG and the longer time taken to change frequency you may get the hand-off to Tower just prior to becoming established. Switch to Tower 120.5.

[PILOT] "Sydney Tower .... Pacific Four Fifty Six" 
[SY_TWR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six, Sydney Tower .... expect late landing clearance" 
[PILOT] "Late landing clearance,... Pacific Four Fifty Six."

Note: ATC are unable to give a landing clearance right now due to traffic on or crossing the runway. Their 'expect' advice is to alert you and let you know that you have not been forgotten and you can still expect to land. ATC can wait until you are quite close to the runway before giving you a landing clearance.

Remember: It is entirely your responsibility as to whether or not you land.

[SY_TWR] "Pacific Four Fifty Six .... Runway 16R cleared to land. Wind is 140 at 15kts." 
[PILOT] "Runway 16R cleared to land .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Note: Only key items in instructions are readback and not the wind advice which is for pilot information only. Vacate the runway without delay switch to Ground 121.7. Domestic operators are not required to advise tower when they are clear (the tower operator can see that out the window) and the frequency change to Ground is made as soon as you are vacated.

[PILOT] "Sydney Ground .... Pacific Four Fifty Six on B10 for Bay 6"
[SY_GND] "Pacific Four Fifty Six Sydney Ground .... taxi via Bravo, hold short 07."
[PILOT] "taxi via Bravo, hold short 07." 

Note: You can get the ATC attention if you want to avoid a stop at the hold point.

[PILOT] "Pacific Four Fifty Six is approaching Runway 07" 
[SY_GND] "Pacific Four Fifty Six .... on BRAVO cross Runway 07, taxi via GOLF to the bay" 
[PILOT] "Cross 07, via GOLF .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"

Taxi to your gate via the nominated taxiways and remain on Ground frequency 121.7. As soon as you are in position at the gate and the engines are no longer required you can shut them down and have the passengers disembark.

Note: A clearance is not required to shut down engines since it is an action that has no affect on other aircraft. In the real world your flight plan is closed with your arrival and requires no further action from you.  Since your controller has given up his time to make your flight more realistic, if you haven't done so already, a thank-you call is generally the right thing to do unless they sound really busy.

[PILOT] "At the gate and shut down thanks for the ATC .... Pacific Four Fifty Six"
[SY_GND] "Pacific Four Fifty Six .... not a problem thanks g'day"


IFR Albury to Melbourne

We will follow as you fly a Beech Baron VH-ABC on an IFR flight from Albury (YMAY), a Class D airport in a non-radar environment, to Melbourne (YMML), a Class C primary airport in a radar environment.

Note: Albury Tower controls 'stepped' Class D and C airspace within 30nm of YMAY up to 8500ft. There is overlying Class C airspace which steps out to 45DME AY where the Class C LL (Lower Level) increases to 12,500ft.

You have submitted a Flight Notification (Flight Plan) for the south-westerly flight at 8000ft, which means that you will transit from the Class D airspace into Class C airspace climbing through 4500ft. At 30DME AY you will leave controlled airspace and fly part of the enroute IFR-OCTA, but you will still be required to maintain continual two-way contact with Melbourne Centre, since you are IFR. Whilst enroute you will obtain an airways clearance to re-enter controlled airspace as you enter the Melbourne Terminal Area.

The flight notification details are:

Callsign: ABC (The 'VH-' is omittted for a domestic flight)

Type: BE58

Rules: IFR

Departing: YMAY

Arriving: YMML

Altitude: A080 (Short for 8,000')

Route: DCT AY V1497 TEMIS V169 ML DCT

Estimated Time Enroute (ETE): 60 mins

Prepare the aircraft, startup. Set transponder to 3000 (standard for IFR flights entering controlled airspace), and Nav-1 to Albury VOR 115.6, and copy the ATIS.

Albury terminal information DELTA. Runway 25, wind 210 at 15 knots, 
Cloud BKN 4500,
 Temp 16, dew point 11. QNH 1015. 
Albury terminal information DELTA.

There is no GND service currently available at Albury so you will call TWR. Set FS radio to 124.2...

[PILOT] "Albury Tower, Alpha Bravo Charlie, IFR Baron for Melbourne, 4 POB, request clearance."

[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, cleared to Melbourne via DUGGI flight planned route, 8000, squawk 2306"

[PILOT] "Cleared to Melbourne via DUGGI planned route, 8000, squawk 2306, Alpha Bravo Charlie""

Take your time to set up you aircraft, set the transponder to 2306 and if available set 8000ft in your autopilot or altitude alert.

[PILOT] "Alpha Bravo Charlie request taxi, received DELTA."

[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, taxi to holding point Charlie runway 25, time 18."

[PILOT] "Holding point Charlie runway 25, Alpha Bravo Charlie"

Taxi to the holding point and ensure you are ready before you make your "ready" call. 

[PILOT] "Alpha Bravo Charlie is ready, and request backtrack for the full length."

[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, backtrack and line up runway 25."

[PILOT] "Backtrack, line up Runway 25, Alpha Bravo Charlie"

[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, cleared for takeoff, make left turn."

[PILOT] "Left turn, cleared for takeoff, Alpha Bravo Charlie"

Note: The only departure instruction you have been given is to make a left hand turn.  This is standard procedure and you'll be expected to simply turn left after takeoff to take up your outbound course to DUGGI (you should endeavour to do this by 5nm from the field).  The outbound course to DUGGI is the 207 Albury radial outbound.

[PILOT] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, departure."

Note: This alerts the controller to be prepared to receive your departure report and allows him to prioritise his workload appropriately (eg. He may need to clear someone to land first). 

[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie."

[PILOT] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, tracking to intercept Albury 207 radial outbound, climbing to 8000, estimate DUGGI time 02."

Note: A departure report is required in a non-radar environment as the TWR controller needs to pass on some of this information to the Centre controller.

[AY_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, passing 6,000 contact Melbourne Centre on 125.2, g'day"

[PILOT] "125.2 passing 6,000, Alpha Bravo Charlie"

Set FS radio to 125.2.

[PILOT] "Melbourne Centre, Alpha Bravo Charlie 15DME Albury tracking 207 radial to DUGGI, climbing to 8000, DUGGI at 02."

[ML_CTR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, Melbourne Centre, Identified, Area QNH1016, verify level."

Note:  The controller needs to verify your altitude matches the readout he has on his scope (sent from your transponder).  He has issued the area QNH which you should ensure is set before you report your level.

[PILOT] "1016, passing 6,500, Alpha Bravo Charlie""

[ML_CTR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, thanks, expect onwards clearance at TEMIS."

Note 1: A clearance only covers you to the first point you leave controlled airspace.  Subsequent clearances must be obtained if you wish to re-enter controlled airspace.  At 8000 you leave controlled airspace at 30 DME AY and will need to get a new clearance before 45 DME ML. Melbourne Centre has anticipated this need due to your flight notification and advised you to expect clearance at TEMIS.

A little while later at TEMIS....

[ML_CTR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, airways clearance available."

[PILOT] "Ready, Alpha Bravo Charlie"

[ML_CTR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, cleared to Melbourne via BOYSE flight planned route maintain 8000"

[PILOT] "Clear to Melbourne via BOYSE planned route, 8000, Alpha Bravo Charlie"


[ML_CTR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, contact Melbourne Approach on 132.0, g'day"

[PILOT ]"132.0, see ya! Alpha Bravo Charlie"

Listen to the Melbourne ATIS, and write it down.

MELBOURNE TERMINAL INFORMATION XRAY

APCH: EXP ILS APCH

RWY: 16 FOR ARR. RWY 27 FOR DEP.

WND: 210/15

VIS: GREATER THAN 10 KM.

CLD: BKN 2500.

TMP: 11.

QNH: 1019.

Switch FS radio to APP 132.0 and set QNH 1019.

[PILOT] "Melbourne Approach, Alpha Bravo Charlie, maintaining 8000, received XRAY, on top."

Note:  You should advise approach that you have received the ATIS and report you current in-flight conditions (VISUAL, IN CLOUD, ON-TOP).

[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, Melbourne Approach, Runway 16, expect vectors for ILS approach."

[PILOT] "Runway 16, Alpha Bravo Charlie."

Note: Approach has acknowledged your call, reiterated the runway and given you information to expect an ILS approach.  You only need to read back the runway, and should now prepare yourself for the ILS by sighting the chart and tuning your NAV radios.  

Just after 30DME ML:

[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, turn right heading 240, descend to 5000."

[PILOT] "Left heading 240, 5000, Alpha Bravo Charlie."

[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, negative, turn RIGHT heading 240."

[PILOT] "Right heading 240, Alpha Bravo Charlie"

Note:  Heading 240 roughly vectors you to the initial approach fix for ILS Runway 16, which according to your chart is a position called BELTA.  ATC will continue to vector you however you should be aware of this fix. Aviate, Navigate, Communicate.

[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, descend to 4000."

[PILOT] "4000, Alpha Bravo Charlie"

A few miles NE of BELTA:

[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, position 4nm left for the 16 localiser, turn left heading 190, cleared ILS Runway 16 Approach."

[PILOT] "Left heading 190, cleared ILS Approach, Alpha Bravo Charlie." 

Note:  You may have found three similar charts for the ILS 16 Approach, X-RAY, YANKEE and ZULU. X-Ray is not required as it is for low visibility operations only.  The difference between YANKEE and ZULU is the source of distance information.  YANKEE derives distance from ML DME, ZULU uses DME from IMS (the localiser frequency.  It doesn't matter which one you use as long as you use the one that matches your instruments.

[ML_APP] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, when established, contact Tower on 120.5"

[PILOT] "120.5, thanks, Alpha Bravo Charlie"

As soon as you are established on the approach, set FS radio to Tower 120.5.

[PILOT] "Melbourne Tower, Alpha Bravo Charlie."

[ML_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, Melbourne Tower."

[ML_TWR] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, wind is 220 degrees at 20 knots,  runway 16 cleared to land."

[PILOT] "Runway 16, cleared to land, Alpha Bravo Charlie"

Note: Only the instruction is readback, and not in this case the weather since it is information only.

Vacate as without delay and set FS radio to Ground on 121.7.

[PILOT] "Melbourne Ground, Alpha Bravo Charlie request taxi to GA parking. We're not familiar with the airport."

[ML_GND] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, Melbourne Ground, turn right onto ALPHA, left on JULIET to parking."

[PILOT] "Right on ALPHA, left on JULIET to parking, thanks, Alpha Bravo Charlie."

Taxiing on JULIET:

[ML_GND] "Alpha Bravo Charlie, GA parking is just off to your right now, g'day"

[PILOT] "OK, thanks a lot, Alpha Bravo Charlie"


Procedural Towers

Procedural Towers are found around the country where traffic levels warrant a full approach service, but not the cost of installing a radar and consoles. Many of these locations will have limited radar or other surveillance coverage and the tower will be equipped with a situational awareness tool that displays aircraft within coverage.

We will demonstrate a flight between Hobart and Launceston to illustrate the phraseology and reporting requirements when under the control of a procedural tower.

We will be operating VHZFR, a Beechcraft King Air 350, from Hobart to Launceston via W295 at FL120.

VHZFR [on 121.7]: Hobart Ground, Zulu Foxtrot Romeo for Launceston, 3 POB [persons on board], received Bravo, request clearance and taxi

Hobart Surface Movement Control: ZFR, cleared to Launceston, direct, maintain FL120, squawk 2415

ZFR: Cleared to Launceston, direct, maintain FL120, squawk 2415, ZFR

HB SMC: ZFR, taxi to holding point Delta, Runway 30, time check 57 and a half [57 minutes 30 seconds past the hour]

ZFR: Taxi to holding point Delta, Runway 30, ZFR

As we approach the holding point, we can change to the Tower frequency without being prompted.

ZFR [on 118.1]: Hobart Tower, ZFR, ready

HB Tower: ZFR, make left turn, cleared for take-off

ZFR: Make left turn, cleared for take-off, ZFR

After take-off, you should turn right to intercept the W295 airway within 5 NM. We must also make a departure report to Tower with our estimate for the next position.

ZFR: ZFR tracking 335 from Hobart, climbing to FL120

HB TWR: ZFR, report climb speed

ZFR: 140 knots, ZFR

HB TWR: ZFR, due to preceding traffic on the same route, reduce speed to not above 120 knots on the climb, advise if unable

ZFR: Reduce to not above 120 knots on the climb, ZFR

We now reduce our speed to 120 knots until we reach cruising level. We may be asked to report passing a certain level or ATC may be able to monitor our climb on their situational awareness tool. Passing 8000 feet, we are instructed to contact the next controller:

HB TWR: ZFR, contact Melbourne Centre on 123.8.

ZFR: 123.8, ZFR

ZFR [on 123.8]: Melbourne Centre, ZFR passing 8300 for FL120

Melbourne Centre: ZFR, identified 28 miles north of Hobart

A short while later...

ML CEN: ZFR, when ready, descend to one zero thousand, Launceston QNH 1015

ZFR: Descend to 10000 feet, QNH 1015, ZFR

ML CEN: ZFR, identification terminated, contact Launceston Tower on 118.7

ZFR: 118.7, ZFR

ZFR [on 118.7]: Launceston Tower, ZFR, descending through FL112 for 10000 feet, 32 DME, estimating Launceston at time 23

Launceston Tower: ZFR, Launceston Tower, descend to 8000, runway 32L

ZFR: Descend to 8000, runway 32L, request ILS approach, ZFR

LT TWR: ZFR, report at 20 DME, expect ILS approach

LT TWR: ZFR, descend to 3000 not below the DME steps

ZFR: Descend to 3000, not below the DME steps.

We can now descend to 3000, but we must not descend below the lowest safe altitudes on the DME/GPS Arrival chart. For our routing, we follow the steps for Sector D.

ZFR: ZFR is at 20 DME

LT TWR: ZFR, track direct to Nile NDB, intercept the localizer, maintain 3000 until Nile, cleared ILS Runway 32L approach

ZFR: Track direct to Nile, intercept the localizer, maintain 3000 until Nile, cleared ILS Runway 32L approach, ZFR

As we are tracking down the glideslope...

LT TWR: ZFR, cleared to land

ZFR: Cleared to land, ZFR

LT TWR: ZFR, taxi to the GA Apron

ZFR: Taxi to the GA Apron, ZFR