When operating on one of these track systems, or in the Indian Ocean Random RNAV area, pilots will often encounter fixes given as Lat/Long values. PMDG, Level D and PSS all use the same format to enter Lat/Long fixes into FMCs. These fixes comprise 4 digits and a letter. The basic rules are:

The first two digits represent latitude (N or S)
The second two digits represent longitude (E or W)
The letter represent which quadrant the fix falls in:

  • When Lat is N and Long is E - E is used
  • When Lat is N and Long is W - N is used
  • When Lat is S and Long is E - S is used
  • When Lat is S and Long is W - W is used

The letter follows the Long digits when Long is between 00 and 99 and preceeds the Long digits when Long is between 100 and 180

Examples of these would be entered as:

20N 010E 2010E
20N 120E 20E20
25N 015W 2515N
25N 145W 25N45
30S 035E 3035S
30S 135E 30S35
35S 045W 3545W
35S 150W 35W50

The Prime Meridian is assumed to be E and the Equator is always assumed to be N. The International Date Line can be either E or W

The other fix in this series is NPOLE. SPOLE does not appear to be included. Neither pole can be reached in FS.

Taken from the Compass Virtual Website.

Realworld KLAX YSSY

PRCH9 DINTY 3200N 12800W 3000N 13300W 2700N 13800W 2400N 14200W 2100N 14600W 1900N 14800W 1300N 15500W 0900N 16000W 0600N 16400W 0100S 17100W 0500S 17539W 0700S 17800W 1200S 17700E 1700S 17100E 2000S 16700E 2314S 16300E 2400S 16200E 3000S 15600E MARLN N774 SY

If you come across this type of flight plan simply combine the lat and long: 3200N 12800W = 32N 128W = 32N28



There is no magic involved in performing SIDS & STARS, they are simply a route made up of waypoints and altitude requirements aimed to provide separation between departing and arriving aircraft.

Some have references to the VOR (distance, radials etc) however most do not and rely on GPS or FMC (flight management computer) to accurately fly the route. If you do not have an FMC or the chart does not allow you to fly the departure with basic navigation instruments, DO NOT FAKE IT! Simply place NOSIDS/STARS in your remarks and request VECTORS for departure or arrival.

Payware aircraft have FMCs that allow pilots to program SIDS & STARS which are displayed for the pilot to track or the autopilot to follow. The lastest AIRAC should be used however there is often little difference between the older procedures so using them is still acceptable. Please advise ATC if you are using an older version.

Australia SIDS & STARS can be found on the Airservices Website here


Not all charts are listed by the SID name eg "DOSEL8" rather by the departure direction "SID RWYS NORTH EAST (JET) (RNAV)" and contain several different departures on the one chart.


STAR Charts are generally listed by their names but include the runway and type of "approach" to be conducted at the end of the arrival.

Prior to TOD (Top of Decent) ATC will give you clearance which will include the Arrival & Runway such as LIZZI FIVE ALPHA RWY 16.

You should then check the charts on the Air Services Website, the VATPAC website OR ATC assist.

Before you request clearance write this down:

Cleared to _____ via _____ planned route maintain ________ rwy ___ , _______ depature squawk _____ departure frequency _____

Simply fill in the blanks as ATC reads your clearance. When he is finished read it back followed by your callsign.

Cleared Sydney via Dosel planned route maintain 5000 rwy 27 , Dosel 7 depature squawk 3001 depature frequency 132.00. Qantas 123


Cleared to Melbourne via Wollongong planned route maintain 5000 rwy 16R, Deena4 departure Wollongong Transistion squawk 4231 departure frequency 124.4. Qantas 123

If you are not familiar with SID AND STARS - put NOSID/STARS in your remarks and expect "RADAR DEPATURE" ATC will then give you vectors (headings) to your first waypoint.

To fly an arc You don't actually set the aircraft up in a slow steady turn, you are actually allowed a 1nm tolerance either side of the stipulated distance and you fly a series of short straight legs with small changes of direction between each. You would fly the outbound track (it's a track, not a heading) from the aid until you get to around 13 DME, then you turn left to 330°. Why 330°? Because that's a right angle to the outbound. You should then be around 15 DME. The turn at 13 DME is the minimum distance, in a slow aircraft you might go a bit further, as your turn will take less distance, either way you at the end of the turn you should be somewhere around 15 DME. Continue heading 330° until your DME is approaching 16 DME then turn 20° to the left to 310°. The DME distance should reduce, usually to a bit under 15 DME and then increase again. Once it gets back to close to 16 DME turn left to 290°. Repeat these 20° changes of direction all the way around the arc. With this particular approach because it's at the end of the tear drop you probably won't make many, if any turns, you'll go to 330° and when you cross the 222 bearing to the aid (note the LB-222° mark) that's an indication that you should start your inbound turn.

All of this assumes nil wind. With wind you need to make the appropriate allowances left or right so you follow a track, not a heading.



Part B Pilot Conduct

8. Pilots are permitted to declare in-flight emergencies. If, for any reason, air traffic control requests the pilot to terminate the emergency, then the pilot must do so IMMEDIATELY or log off of VATSIM. Pilots are not permitted to simulate, in any manner, an unlawful act while logged onto the VATSIM.net network including, but not limited to, declaring a hijack by statement utilizing either voice or text or by entering a transponder code of 7500.


VATPAC permits the declaration of in-flight emergencies under the VATSIM Policy and adds that all emergencies are deemed "simulated and non life threatening".

Before a simulated emergency can be approved ATC will consider the following;

  • Does the ATC have enough time to deal with your emergency without adversely effecting their workload
  • Will your emergency adversely effect other members enjoyment
  • Will your emergency affect the normal traffic flow
  • Do any pilots have an objection to this emergency
  • Will it affect the adjacent controllers - do they agree to handle your emergency

If the controller deems that any of this criteria are met the following actions will be taken:

The controller will request you terminate the emergency or log off VATSIM immediately or alternatively divert your aircraft to another airfield.

Airport Suport Vehicles: The VATSIM network exists to simulate air traffic control and flight operations. Our bandwidth is donated by people and organizations who support that effort. The Founders have determined that operating non-aircraft vehicles on the network is outside the purpose of the network and therefore a misuse of the donated bandwidth. As such, non-aircraft vehicles are not allowed on the network.

Airforce 1, Royal Flying Doctors, Police & Emergency Services: Many people are interested in simulating flying under this famous callsigns or special services aircraft. Given the fact that all people connected to the network are members with the same standing, it is inappropriate to give priority to one person just because he/she has chosen to login with a specific callsign. You are welcome to fly as "Air Force One or other callsign" but you will not be given special priority or treatment over other member's use of the airspace and network.

5 x 5 - Strength x Clarity


Five by five is the best of 25 possible subjective responses used to describe the quality of communications, specifically the signal-to-noise ratio. As receiving stations move away from an analog radio transmitting site, the signal strength decreases gradually while noise levels increase. The signal becomes increasingly difficult to understand until it can no longer be heard as anything other than static.[1]

In voice procedure (the techniques used to facilitate spoken communication over two-way radios) a transmitting station may request a report on the subjective quality of signal they are broadcasting. In the military of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries, and other organizations, the signal quality is reported on two scales; the first is for signal strength, and the second for signal clarity. Both these scales range from one to five, where one is the worst and five is the best. The listening station reports these numbers separated with the word "by". "Five by five" therefore means a signal that has excellent strength and perfect clarity — the most understandable signal possible.

"Five by five" (occasionally written "'5 by 5", "five-by-five", "5 x 5", or "5-by-5"), by extension, has come to mean "I understand you perfectly" in situations other than radio communication. A further shortened form is "five by". Post-World War II, the phrase "Loud and Clear" entered common usage with a similar meaning.

The term is arguably derived from the signal quality rating systems such as shortwave's SINPO code or amateur radio's RST. Given that this slang spans not only generations but also a spectrum of communications technologies (spark-gap transmitters, shortwave, radio telephone, Citizen's Band (CB) radio, cellular among others) and organizations (hobbyist, commercial, many military branches in different countries), there are many interpretations in popular misuse.

This reporting system is not appropriate for rating digital signal quality. This is because digital signals have fairly consistent quality as the receiver moves away from the transmitter until reaching a threshold distance. At this threshold point, sometimes called the "digital cliff," the signal quality takes a severe drop and is lost.[2] This difference in reception reduces attempts to ascertain subjective signal quality to simply asking "Can you hear me now?" or similar. (The only possible response is "Yes;" otherwise, there is just dead air.) This sudden signal drop was also one of the primary arguments of analog proponents against moving to digital systems. However, the "five bars" displayed on many cell phones does directly correlate to the signal strength rating

Source: Wikipedia

Online Implementation

Strength refers to Volume and Clarity refers to the Quality


This can be effected in several ways;

1- Distance from the microphone, too far and it will be quiet and too close it will be too loud, even to the point it "over drives / distorts" and make the transmission unreadable .

2- The recording levels are set to low - check your sound control panel and your application recording levels


This can also be effected in many ways;

1- Broken wire in your microphone

2- Your baby has sucked on the microphone and it is filled with saliva

3-You have a cheep microphone that has unsheilded wires - so you engines sounds crossing over to your mic (turn engine sound off while transmitting)

4- You engine sounds from your speakers are too loud

5- You speaking too close to the microphone or "blowing" into it when you speak (move microphone below your chin or to the side)

Teamspeak is a VOIP program (voice over internet protocol) similar to Skype which allows user to communicate in real time and in high quality for free. Members can connect to the VATPAC Teamspeak3 server and join channels to talk and discuss anything to do with VATPAC/VATSIM. VATPAC uses teamspeak for Training, ATC Coordination, Town Hall Meetings and more.

How to get connected

Click here to Download Teamspeak3 Client from Teamspeak.com

Note: Ensure you download the correct version - 32bit or 64bit depending on your operation system

Server Address:ts3.vatpac.org
Nickname = Your Full Name + Vatsim ID (eg. John Citizen - 9955599)
Server Password = 126.25

The Rules

NICKNAME = Your Full Name + Vatsim ID (eg. John Citizen - 9955599)

A Director must set your permission to Normal before you can interact with the server.


The VATSIM CoC applies to all users of this service. Anyone found in breach of the rules may be permanently banned: http://www.vatsim.net/library/codeofconduct.pdf

File uploads must be small and immediately relevant to online flying. The server has upload limits for individuals and all uploads are logged.

Once you have installed teampseak, click Next & Enter Your Full Name & VATSIM ID.

Do not use Voice Activation Detection - Set a Push To Talk key.

We recommend changing from the default - as this is the one used for VATSIM. Sometimes you will need to mute TS so you can hear ATC. Try the Print Screen button. Continue pressing next through the remainder of the screens until the end.

Untick the port setup wizard options and click FINISH.

ZULU time (which can be also known as UTC or GMT time) is the time that we use for aviation. Greenwich is a small city located in the UK.This is the time that aviation is based off.

But how do you convert that to Australian Time?

With a land mass close to 7.7 million square kilometres, Australia is the world’s sixth largest country and is divided into three separate time zones.

Australian Eastern Standard Time (AEST)

Covers the eastern states of Queensland, New South Wales (with the exception of the town of Broken Hill), Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory.
AEST is equal to Coordinated Universal Time plus 10 hours (UTC +10).

Australian Central Standard Time (ACST)

Covers the state of South Australia, the town of Broken Hill in western New South Wales and the Northern Territory.
ACST is equal to Coordinated Universal Time plus 9 ½ hours (UTC +9 ½).

Australian Western Standard Time (AWST)

Covers Western Australia.
AWST is equal to Coordinated Universal Time plus 8 hours (UTC +8).

Daylight Saving Time

Daylight Saving Time is the practice of advancing clocks one hour during the warmer months of the year. In Australia, Daylight Saving Time is observed in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and the Australian Capital Territory.

Daylight Saving Time begins at 2am (AEST) on the first Sunday in October and ends at 2am (AEST) (which is 3am Australian Eastern Daylight Time) on the first Sunday in April.

Where Daylight Saving Time is observed:

NSW, ACT,Vic and Tas move from AEST to Australian Eastern Daylight Time (AEDT), and clocks are advanced to UTC +11.

SA and the NSW town of Broken Hill move from ACST to Australian Central Daylight Time (ACDT), and clocks are advanced to UTC +10 ½.

Daylight Saving Time is not observed in Queensland, the Northern Territory or Western Australia.